Saturday, December 7, 2019

Military Endeavor in Bosnia free essay sample

Calls for comprehensive reforms were growing, especially from the constituent republics Slovenia and Croatia and the central government became incapable of acting. More and more power was given up to the constituent republics. At the beginning of 1990 the Yugoslavian unity party SKJ (Savez Komunista Jugoslavije) has fallen and majority party elections were established in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Political Parties were established that functioned mainly in the interest of their ethnical background. Hence the rivalry between the parties for more power developed into an ethno-political rivalry. On June 25 in 1991 Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence. Directly after, armed conflicts started between groups which defended their territorial and the Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA), the last institution of the SFR Yugoslavia. More and more constituent republics were involved and soon a war started that we will remember as the Yugoslav war that later reached Bosnia, where most of the fighting took place. It was a bloody civil war between neighbors in South Eastern Europe in the late 20 century that was ended too late. Many victims would be alive if the international audience would have been more concerned about its importance of involvement. The United States, as one of the countries, acted too late at the expense of human life. The Bosnian war was a failed humanitarian intervention of the UN, a weak NATO presence and a US policy that planned [†¦] to pursue a U. S. ommitment to Bosnia-Herzegovina that is short-sighted in vision and transparent in end state The ‘symbolic’ presence of the UNO and the early stage of the war In 1991 The United States just ended the Gulf War and hence the majority of the American population didn’t see the point in involving themselves into another war. It was an ongoing dispute of whose responsibility was to intervene in the Bosnian War. George Bush’s policy indicated to use diplomatic initiatives rather than the usage of A merican military force. After being involved in World War I and II the United States saw their mission in Europe completed. There was no more a Soviet threat and the European Community (EC) should be ready to deal with its problems by themselves which was also accomplished by the Maastricht treaty in 1992. The countries in the EC should be stable enough to ensure democracy and peace in Europe. However, the actions that have been initialized by the EC failed. The countries couldn’t find a consensus of working together and using a strategy that would end the war. The Yugoslavian conflict parties arranged, with the initiative of the EC, a plan on June 29th in 1991. The plan provided 3 points which was 1) ceasefire between Slovenia and Croatia and the withdrawal of their armies 2) Slovenia and Croatia should pause with their declaration of independence for 3 month 3) Serbia should give up his resistance towards the new elected Croatian President Mesic Beside the 3rd point all the other attempts to end this war failed. Another failure of the EC was to rush into recognizing Slovenia’s and Croatia’s independence. Bosnia was even rushed to motion its independence between the times of December 16th until December 23rd 1991. A week that was given to consider establishing a country which history is very diverse and complicated. In the late summer of 1991 the Moslem politician Izetbegovic asked the UNO to send observers and a peacekeeping force because he knew what a war would cause in Bosnia. The attempt failed due to the UN principles to intervene when all intern actions failed to prevent a civil war. After the war broke out the UN decided to send 100 and a few month later in June 1992 1. 000 peacekeepers to Bosnia. The modest aim was to ensure a complete defeat of the Moslem population with a minimum of UN forces. NATO In early May 1992 the UN sanctioned Yugoslavia or the parts that still remained Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and a few days later the UN Security Council placed an economic embargo on Yugoslavia. NATO warships were sent to the Adriatic Sea to enforce the internationally established embargo. In October 1992 the UN Security Council decided to forbid any military flights of the warring parties. However, there have been various violations against the flying ban. Therefore NATO decided to start their direct combat mission in the air in April 1994. It didn’t stop the Serbs to take UN peacekeepers and other observant as hostage. Thus the NATO’s first air attacks did not have a great effect for stopping the war. The establishment of ‘UN protected zones’ and the case of Srebrenica The UN protected zones were established mainly for the Muslim population that was surrounded by either Croatian or Serb territory. Building protected zones was another attempt to secure civilians even though they were fairly against the UN principles of impartiality and agreement of all warring parties. The history has shown us that the UN peacekeepers were tricked by the Serbs and the ‘protected zone’ was used to facilitate covert genocide that we know today by the name of The Srebrenica Massacre in July 1995. End of the war After violating the protected zones in Srebrenica and Zepa, NATO decided for massive air attacks on military and logistical targets of the Serbs. Until this moment there have been ten NATO air attacks during the war. It was obvious that this was not enough to end the war. Through another UN Resolution, that was formally not necessary, the UN and NATO decided to intensify their air attacks by almost 2000 attacks in a couple of days. The war ended but it was a very long way for the US to decide the various kinds of intervention. Opinions went from not getting involved at all because the EC should deal with it by themselves to deploying US troops, first for humanitarian or peacekeeping efforts then for United Nations (UN) or NATO military actions, including rescuing UN peacekeepers. According to several polls at the beginning of the war, the Americans would support any of the humanitarian interventions and multilateral agreements. ‘Bosnia reveals that the ‘‘post-Vietnam syndrome’’ was still apparent in the preference of most Americans to stay out of foreign entanglements since the Reagan-era involvements in Central America’. Nevertheless, most Americans were sure that Bosnia won’t be the next Vietnam. Polls also show that interventions should be used if there is a case of genocide. However, it was a long way for the US government to fulfill the peoples will. It was talked too much around and the media used terms such as ‘civil war’ or ‘ethnic war’ to undermine the need of stronger interventions at the beginning of the war. A Presidential term was coming up and the need of actions was put aside regardless of moral principles. In a democratic country that is based on a will of people with representatives elected by the people, a public opinion is a crucial right. If a poll shows that most of the Americans agree with military humanitarian intervention before 1995 why did a hegemonic power, as the US back then, didn’t interfere earlier with more pressure on the International community to act stronger and precisely. A diplomatic intervention in 1992 had a great impact on the course of the war until 1995. The United States has supported the UN resolution of preventing genocide, as it was before declared to be a crime under international law. Sadly neither Bush senior nor Clinton have made efforts to prevent genocide in Bosnia. Samantha Power wrote ‘it is in the realm of domestic politics that the battle to stop genocide is lost. American political leaders interpret society-wide silence as an indicator of public indifference. ’ Not until Srebrenica did the domestic and international politics pushed Clinton into action of interfering with massive military forces which at the end brought the war into an end. ‘Clinton rode into the White House rallying against Bush’s non-interventionist policy and favoring commitments to stop genocide. Facing a re-election year, a time when an administration’s promises are measured against their actual accomplishments, Clinton was particularly sensitive to challenges to his earlier pledges. Dole’s role augmented an explosion of a united media campaign, increasing international pressure for intervention, and the embarrassing fall of a U. S. -backed ‘safe zone,’ aggravating Clinton’s original commitments to put an end to the Bosnian genocide and made the political costs of non-intervention too high for the Clinton Administration to withstand. Because of this conglomeration of pressures, Clinton could follow his own moral convictions and stop the genocide. ’ In conclusion: The US intervention in Bosnia has three significant phases. The first phase included a diplomatic interference at the beginning of the war. It was an European problem. Thus Europeans should deal with it. The second phase was a very modest humanitarian-military intervention (UN and NATO) by the US, in an area where such ‘experiments’ are fatal in the course of the war. The UN ‘peacekeeping master plan’ failed completely for one good reason. No one can heal a huge wound with a simple band aid. After 3 years of a bloody fight and a never ending war what could the hegemonic power US do? Either withdraw its troops and run away and be an audience of a war that might have murdered a whole ethnic group or reinforce and fight. The third phase, which finally ended the war, it was crucial that the US as well as the EC, NATO and the UN realize the importance of a strong military interference which is based on a common consensus. The European Community failed completely to solve its Balkan problem due to self-interests, premature decisions and a lack of a consensus. However not being involved in the war, as some US elites suggested at the beginning of the war because it is an European issue, would have been against the principles of human rights and would have created a humanitarian disaster similar.

Friday, November 29, 2019

2001 A Space Odyssey Essays - Fiction, Space Odyssey Series

2001: A Space Odyssey The concept of space travel has been an interest to many since the beginning of time. Today, scientists are moving at a comfortable pace to expand our vast knowledge of the universe. Many authors dreamed of the possibilities while scientists tried to bring them to reality. The book 2001: A Space Odyssey, written by Arthur C. Clarke in the 1960's, proposed ideas about advanced space travel that took place in a time period only two years from now; however, at the current rate of the space program, mankind is nowhere near the technology showed by the book. Clarke uses concepts of space travel that can still only be dreamed of today. Clarke, an author of the sixties, had ventured out to write a book on a subject that many people had scarce knowledge of. However, since Myths and tales of flying to the Moon or the stars are probably as old as humankind, many were interested (Lewis 16). People wanted to read a book that had ideas in it that were beyond the grasp of humankind. Although many of his ideas seemed impossible to accomplish, surprisingly, Clarke proposed a number of realistic ideas. For example, in 1945 Clarke proposed using satellites to relay communications to different parts of Earthmore than 20 years before the first satellite was launched (17). Clarke had stunned many scientists with the proposition of his satellite communication ideas. Furthermore, Clarke could recreate any space travel image of his dreams through his book. His only concern was to make the ideas as imaginable as possible. Unfortunately, scientists knew real istically the universe is determined to throw in every road block that can be imagined (Carroll 1). Space is much more complicated than Clarke could imagine, and modern day scientists know that. The present day space program does not have the technology to accomplish the missions which were proposed in the book. For example, Clarke had the idea for an interstellar mission to Jupiter. It had begun, five years ago, as Project Jupiter the first manned round trip to the greatest of the planets (Clarke 85). According to the book, this mission had been started two years ago from present day. The current space program cannot accomplish a mission of this calabur. However, many modern day scientists know Interstellar travel is real and possible (Mallove 1). Keeping this in mind, scientists have an incentive to keep advancing everyday. The current day space program is advancing one step at a time. So far, In exploring the planets, it has been robotic technology (Lewis 160). A manned flight to a distant planet was and still is a dream to modern day scientists. However, Clarke was able to recreate this dream and make space travel become an easy everyday process. The space program in the book is so advanced that it is portrayed as a much more lax operation than present day. Today, the space program can only send a carefully selected group of elites to travel into space. The modern day program . . . Demanded the selection of new types of astronauts. Pilots would still be needed to control the Space Shuttle, but different skills would be required to perform space walks, operate the Shuttles robot arm and deploy satellites (Davies 146). Since missions are so expensive, they need to be fully accomplished thus requiring the best astronauts anyone can find. Furthermore, the missions found in the book were considered routine. Contrastingly, present day standards would describe them as explicit and gone about in a more careful manner. An ordinary civilian in the book . . . Had been to Mars once, to the Moon three times, and to the various space stations more often than he could remember (Clarke 35). The civilian had not been through the process of tr aining or selection as is required today. Since Clarke portrayed spaceflight as an easy operation, small missions had seemed to become unimportant. When about to take off, there was none of that old-fashioned FIVE-FOUR-THREE-TWO-ONE-ZERO business (39). Launches in the book were much more sophisticated and relaxed. However, since launches today still use the countdown, the book seems to refer to present day launches as old-fashioned (39). While the book makes

Monday, November 25, 2019

Holocaust essays

Holocaust essays The Holocaust was the most horrific time that man has known. To survive this atrocity, the Holocaust victims man upon man atrocity, one had to summon bravery, strength, courage, and wisdom that many did not know they possessed. One survivor is Elie Wiesel, whose exquisite writings have revealed the world of horror suffered by the Jewish people. Elie Wiesel's statement, "...to remain silent and indifferent is the greatest sin of all..." stands as a succinct summary of his views on life and serves as the driving force of his work. Elie Wiesel was born as Eliezer, a free Jewish male, on September 30, 1928, in the remote town of Sighet, Hungary. The third child and only male of four, his family was prosperous and respected within the town. In 1941, life was good for the Wiesel family, and the Sighet Jews. Unaware of the turmoil in the world around him, Eliezer was content with studying his religion, and enjoying life as the son of a father with high political connections. He was devoted to his studies to love and serve his god. He was befriended by one of the locals, Moche the Beadle, who agreed to be his spiritual Master. Gradually, in seemingly insignificant, isolated instances, life for the Sighet Jews began to change. Sometime toward the end of 1941, the foreign Jews were expelled from this town, sent to destinations unknown to any of them. This included his Master, Moche. Moche returned in late 1942 with horrific accounts of what he had witnessed. He (Moche) told his story and that of his companions. The train full of deportees had crossed the Hungarian frontier and on Polish territory had been taken in charge by the Gestapo. There it had stopped. The Jews had to get out and climb into lorries. The lorries drove toward the forest. The Jews were made to get out. They were made to dig huge graves. And when they had finished their work, the Gestapo began theirs. Without passion, without haste, they slaughtered their prisoners. Each...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Regional Coordination for Tourism Planning Research Paper

Regional Coordination for Tourism Planning - Research Paper Example The growing global concern about environment has contributed to the concept of sustainable ‘ecotourism’ from which some regions like Maldives, Kenya and Belize have taken advantage by maintaining their natural resources to target tourism market (Moutinho 2000). This paper in particular, will discuss the point that regional coordination is essential in tourism planning in order to attain the policy objectives at their anticipated levels. To illustrate, a plan that aims tourism development of a particular region has to be comprised of socio-economic, legal, environmental, and religious components. As the initial stages of development, the tourism policy must focus on providing adequate facilities to accommodate and entertain the visitors. Moreover such places must be equipped with all basic facilities like water, telephone, banking; currency exchange etc. transport is another important area which needs special attention. All modes of transportations whether air, water or road have their own roles in the sustainability of tourism industry. All the above factors can be assimilated only through the coordination of local governments, stakeholders, and the residents of the locality. Tourism planning is neither top-down nor bottom-up process; instead, it is an interactive or collaborative approach that involves the various processes like governess between organisations and stakeholders, and interaction between various levels of organisation (Bramwell & Lane 2000, p.146). However, what kind of development plan is required depends on the geographical feature of an area. In general sense, developmental initiatives and strategic concerns come within the following areas. Environmental issues have grown to be one of the major concerns of tourism planning all over the world. Hence, all policies including infrastructure developmental strategies should ensure the conservation of the environment

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Business management (innovating ) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business management (innovating ) - Essay Example Some of these concepts include agency or power, obligatory point of passage, actors, and the actor network theory among others. This paper shall delve in the significance of these concepts if applied to the case of the life and death of an aircraft, the masses analyses, and the Callon scallops paper. In this chapter, authors Law & Callon (1992) explore the consequences associated with the technical changes that happen during the duration of completing a technological innovation. They believe that even by starting technological innovation in a particular industry let alone an aircraft industry, changes can happen at some point during this duration. For instance, a technological project may require hundreds of thousands of ideas, thousands of workers, millions or even billions of money, highly intellectual specialists on sciences, engineering, and business, and, of course, the materials needed in the operation such as machines, designs, parts, etc. (Law & Callon 1992). The socio-technical context of technical change suggests the importance of having a global network, which harmoniously organizes everything in a sense that as consequences for every individual actor may become too significant to affect the overall outcome of the technological project, adjustments can be made accordi ngly. This network of actors makes the operation more manageable and easy to understand; it generates more time, space, and a set of resources in which innovation may take place (Law & Callon 1992). The strength of the global network depends on how strong its external connections, internal mobilization and obligatory point of passage are. For example, in building an aircraft, local network may have to come up with a design and develop production facilities; global network may serve as the securer of operations funding. In other words, the global network that is being talked about and employed in this context of the paper means

Monday, November 18, 2019

Journal #2 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Journal #2 - Assignment Example The wallet might communicate a message that I love and feel proud of my name, since I have its initials inscribed on my wallet. My wrist watch hold a special place amongst my personal items, since it was given to me as a birthday present by my childhood friend who relocated from our state after our high school graduation, and his friendship spot has never been filled to present day. The wrist watch might communicate that I highly value gold watches, even though the real reason I always have it is because I loved my childhood friend very much and it always reminds me of him. The family photograph in my wallet reminds me of my loving family and helps me to always keep emotionally attached to them. The photograph might communicate that I love and value my family very much, that is why I always have their photograph with me. The ‘Thank You’ card reminds me of the voluntary services I offered at a hospice during my sophomore summer holiday, where I helped attend to old and terminally ill patients in a local hospital. The local hospital in turn sent me the ‘Thank You’ card as an appreciation of my effort and services. a. Self-disclosure refers to a communication approach that entails an individual revealing personal information related to his/her history and the present, more so as related to emotions and thoughts (Zur, 2011). b. I regularly self-disclose to my childhood friend almost every issue that affects my life no matter how much confidential it might seem to be, since he does the same with me. The reason for self-disclosing to my friend is because we have grown up together and he knows virtually everything about my life, my family background and all the childhood activities and memories that I cherish. Having been of the same age, I and my childhood friend spent most of the times together since we hailed from the same

Saturday, November 16, 2019

The benefits of mental toughness in sport

The benefits of mental toughness in sport ABSTRACT On the basis of advantages that a mental toughness can offer to a performer, the study was designed to develop the understanding of the components of mental toughness in sport. The purpose of this study was to identify the components of mental toughness as perceived by the researcher and was guided by the two questions, which are as follows: What are the components of mental toughness and To what degree those components of mental toughness are trainable or teachable to a particular player. 10 cricket players ageing from fourteen years of age to twenty years of age were selected for the research so that they have enough experience to answer the questions in the research. The procedure of this was that the research is based on the questionnaire of mental toughness given by Sparkes in 1998. Each participant had to fill the questionnaire for the purpose of evaluating the importance and trainability of twenty different components of mental toughness. INTRODUCTION Cricket is one of the most popular games having a very high viewership and followers. Cricket is basically a mental game that requires a lot of psychological skills in addition to basic playing skills. These skills make player a champion and different from ordinary player. He (champion) is able to display his psychological as well as playing skills during the course of the game. Among the various psychological skills, mental toughness is an important psychological factor that effect’s player’s performance in matches. Sometimes, cricket teams despite their talents lose their matches. The researches on these poor performance lead to the finding that the players in these teams lack mental toughness and the ability to bounce back from the setback of losses. There is an evident to prove it when cricket’s great legend Sir Vivian Richards attributed the Indian cricket team’s loss in West Indies during the cricket world cup 2007 in the first round as the lack of m ental toughness in Indian players. Loehr (1986), he popularised the term mental toughness in sports performance and contested that at least half of superior performances can be due to mental toughness. Mental toughness is regarded as the most important factor in sports to achieve the goals and perform excellent. Jones, Hanton and Connaughton (2002), they stated that mental toughness can be defined as having a natural or developed psychological edge that helps or enables a player to generally cope better than his opponents in many demands (competition, training) and specifically would be more consistent and better than the opponents in remaining focused and determined and goal oriented in his sport. Attributes of mental toughness (Sparkes 1998), he talked about twelve different attributes that a player should have to be ideally mentally tough performer. For further investigation of mental toughness, the following questions were developed to guide this research. What are the essential components of mental toughness as perceived by the cricketers? To what degree are these stated components of mental toughness are trainable or teachable? On the basis of these two major criteria, the player was asked the following questions: I can bounce back from the from the set back as a result of increased determination to succeed. I have an unshakable self belief that i possess the unique qualities that make me better than my opponents. I have an insatiable desire and internalised motive to succeed. I remain fully focused on the task in hand in the face of competition- specific distractions. I am able to regain psychological control if facing uncontrollable situations. I can push back the boundaries of emotional and physical pain, while still maintaining techniques and effort in distress in training and competition. I accept that competition anxiety is inevitable and knowing that i can cope with it. I don’t get adversely affected by other’s good or the bad performances. I can thrive on the pressure of competition. I remain fully focused in the face of personal life distractions REVIEW OF LITERATURE The present study was undertaken to explore the physiological profile of the cricket players and to find to what degree their mental toughness, goal orientation actually helps them in their performances. The result showed that there is no significant correlation between mental toughness and different types of goal orientation i.e. task orientation and ego orientation. At the same time, the motivation dimension of mental toughness was found to be significantly related to both ego and goal orientation. (Duda and Hall,2001) Moreover task orientation has been found to be positively associated with various indicators of motivation, including intrinsic motivation positive affect and the tendency to seek out the new and challenging experiences and to try hard in difficult situations. (Ntoumanis and Biddle, 1999) â€Å"The general lack of clarity and precision surrounding the term mental toughness is unfortunate, since it ism arguably one of the most important physiological attributes in achieving performance excellence. (Jones, 2002) Another study conducted by researchers stated that mental toughness is an important physiological characteristic of the game. (Gould, 1987, 1993 and 2002); (Williams, 1998);( Jones, 2002) â€Å"It appears therefore, that virtually any desirable positive psychological characteristic associated with sporting success has been labelled as mental toughness at one time or the other†. (Jones,2002) METHOD This chapter will discuss the participants, procedure, analysis and instrument used in the study. This study involves both quantitative and qualitative measures of the components of the mental toughness of sportspersons. PARTICIPANTS This, study consisted of 10 male cricketers from the division 3 and 2 category of cricket teams in the city. A mix of different teams and players were chosen to increase the diversity of the group. Each participant was needed to have a minimum of three years of playing cricket so that they can answer the questions in their knowledgeable way. INSTRUMENTATION The instrument used in this study is the questionnaire comprised of twenty questions of mental toughness. These twenty questions comprised of twelve different components of mental toughness and eight components of preservance that were given by Sparkes in 1998. Each component was assessed by participants based on their perception of: The importance of including each component in the construct of mental toughness. The degree to which each component is trainable. The participants assessed both the importance and the degree to which the component is trainable, using a 5 point scale. Besides this two additional questions were also asked which are as follows: Are there other components of mental toughness that should be included which are not there in the questionnaire? Do you believe that there is any component that could be combined to form an individual, essential component of mental toughness? PROCEDURE When the questionnaire of mental toughness (Sparkes,1998) was adopted by the researcher, he then approached 10 different cricketers and asked them to fill up the questionnaire. Researcher also made sure that the identity of the players will be kept confidential i.e. it would not be disclosed to anyone. Researcher sat down with the players and asked them the questions and marked the answers himself. 1